Near Field Communication (NFC)

What prevents them from being cloned? - Nothing. - Unique ID in ROM segment (ID cannot be changed then)

Assembly Ref

In computer org, data allocation happens on the stack (more limited, faster, more immediate actions) and heap (adaptable, slower, dynamic memory). data segment for variables, code segment also shellcode is asm instructions in hex code (architectures have shellcodes represent certain operations)

Buffer Overflow

Buffer overflow happens when an unsafe buffer that reads in inputs goes outside the bounds of it’s intended memory address It can be deadly because the stack can be overwritten Can return an overwritten memory address by manipulating the eip register, which is the instruction pointer (next instruction) It may be harder to overwrite local variables and less useful, since compiler optimization may not overwrite where you want it to.