In computer org, data allocation happens on the stack (more limited, faster, more immediate actions) and heap (adaptable, slower, dynamic memory).
data segment for variables, code segment also shellcode is asm instructions in hex code (architectures have shellcodes represent certain operations)
Buffer overflow happens when an unsafe buffer that reads in inputs goes outside the bounds of it’s intended memory address It can be deadly because the stack can be overwritten Can return an overwritten memory address by manipulating the eip register, which is the instruction pointer (next instruction) It may be harder to overwrite local variables and less useful, since compiler optimization may not overwrite where you want it to.
Built with pytorch backend Usually involves specifying a generative process Usually either use Stochastic Variational Inference (SVI) optimization methods or Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) sampling methods For SVI Define a model and a guide (variational distribution) guides define where the parameters are to be learnt Example model and guide code
def reverseList(self, head: ListNode) -> ListNode: current = head while (current and current.next): next = current.next current.next = next.next next.next = head head = next return head This is a real basic problem, but it can be tricky.